‘-었던/았던/였던 것 같다’ is used to describe past events that you don’t remember very well, or to speculate on past facts through some clues.
● 작년 겨울은 이번 겨울보다 더 추웠던 것 같아.
● 점수를 보니까 마리아 씨는 시험 준비를 안했던 것 같네요.
‘-는답니다/ㄴ답니다, -답니다’ is used to tell the other person what you think they don’t know. This expression has a kind and friendly feeling.
● 한국 사람들은 설날 아침에 떡국을 먹는답니다.
● 옛날 옛날에 어느 먼 나라에 신데렐라라는 아이가 살았답니다.
‘-이라든가/라든가’ is an expression that lists examples of nouns. Behind this expression is a category word that ties together the examples listed.
● 주말이라든가 공휴일 같은 쉬는 날에는 가족끼리 외식을 자주 했어요.
● 방학에는 제주도라든가 설악산 같은 경치가 좋은 곳에 가고 싶어요.
‘-고요’ is used to add information to your or other person’s words.
● 비가 많이 와요. 바람도 불고요.
● 어제는 친구하고 저녁을 먹었어요. 술도 마셨고요.
‘-자마자’ is used when an actions happens right after another action.
● 도착하자마자 전화하세요. (Please call me right after arriving.)
● 제 친구는 가방을 사자마자 잃어버렸어요. (My friend lost his bag as soon as he bought it.)
● 저하고 준수는 만나자마자 친해졌어요. (Junsu became close with me from the moment we met.)
‘-는데도, -은데도/ㄴ데도, -인데도’ is used when something unexpected happens in a certain situation. So, it can be translated into ‘even though…, still…’.
– 더운데도 밖에서 일을 해야 해요. (Although it’s hot, we still have to work outside.)
– 계속 잤는데도 감기가 낫지 않아요. (Even though I keep sleeping, the cold is not getting better.)
– 제인은 미국 사람인데도 한국 사람처럼 한국말을 잘해. (Although Jane is American, she can speak Korea like a Korean.)
‘-는 편이다, -은/ㄴ 편이다’ is used to express a tendency rather than making an assertive and clear statement of a fact, which literally means ‘on a certain side’. It’s often used with some adverbs like ‘많이’ (many, a lot), ‘자주'(often) etc. After verbs, we use ‘-는 편이다’, After adjectives, we use ‘-은 편이다(if it ends in a noun)/’-ㄴ 편이다‘(If it ends in a vowel).
– 만 원이니까 좀 비싼 편이에요. (It’s 10000 won, so it’s kind of expensive)
– 일주일에 두 번쯤 영화를 보니까 자주 보는 편이에요. (I tend to watch a lot of movies, about two times a week)
‘-네요, -이네요/네요’ is used to refer to what you have just realized. Often it expresses a speaker’s surprise typically at an unexpected or counter-expected events or states.
● 어? 비가 오네요.
● 와, 아기가 정말 귀엽네요!
‘-던데요, -이던데요/던데요’ is used to explain an occasion which one saw or experienced in person in a retrospective way.
● 시험이 생각보다 어렵던데요. (The exam was more difficult than I thought (as I recall).)
● 배우가 연기를 아주 잘하던데요. (The acting skills of the actors were great (as I recall).)
● 유리 씨의 남자친구는 태국 사람이던데요. (Yuri’s boyfriend was from Thailand (as I recall).)