카테고리 글 목록: Level 1a

-은/는/을

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This grammar is placed after a verb stem. It is used to modify a noun that follows. ‘-는’ is used for the present tense. ‘-은/ㄴ’ is used for the past tense, and ‘-을/ㄹ’ is used for the future tense. When the verb stem ends with a consonant, use ‘-은’, ‘-을’, When the stem ends with a vowel or a consonant ‘ㄹ’, use ‘-ㄴ’, ‘-ㄹ’.

● 내가 본 영화 (The movie that I watched)
● 내가 보는 영화 (The movie that I watch)
● 내가 볼 영화 (The movie that I will watch)

 

-에

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‘N에’ is used with a time noun to indicate the time when the action or situation happens. This particle is not used with nouns like ‘어제, 오늘, 내일, 모레, 그저께’.

● 저는 아침 7시에 일어나요. (I wake up at 7 in the morning.)
● 저는 작년에 한국에 왔어요. (I came to Korea last year.)

-하고

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1. ‘N하고’ is used when listing more than one item. It is often used in spoken Korean while ‘N과/와’ are mostly used only in written Korean. In this case, ‘N하고‘ can be translated into ‘N and’.
2. ‘N하고’ is used to show the person with whom do a certain action. In this case, ‘N하고‘ can be translated into ‘with N’.

● 빵하고 우유를 먹었어요. (I ate some bread and milk.)
● 저는 엄마하고 살아요. (I live with my mom.)

 

-부터 -까지

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‘N부터’, which can be translated into ‘from’, is used to show a starting time of an action. And ‘N까지’ which can be translated into ‘to/until’, is used to show the time an action will end or has ended.

● 아홉 시부터 잤어요. (I slept from 9.)
● 1시 반까지 하세요. (Do it until one and a half.)

 

-읍시다/ㅂ시다

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‘-읍시다/ㅂ시다’ is used formally to express a proposition, suggestion, or an order to a group of at least two speakers in which the speaker is included. This is equivalent to saying “Let’s ~” in English. ‘-지 맙시다’ means “Let’s not ~”.

● 갑시다! (Let’s go!)
● 담배를 피우지 맙시다. (Let’s not smoke.)

 

-을까요?/ㄹ까요?

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‘-을까요?/ㄹ까요?’ is used for suggestion to the listener like ‘Shall we…?’. If the verb stem ends with a vowel or ‘ㄹ’, then use ‘ㄹ까요?’. If the verb stem ends with a consonant except ‘ㄹ’, then use ‘을까요?’.

● 우리 좀 쉴까요? (Shall we take some rest?)
● 뭘 먹을까요? (What shall we eat?)

 

-은/ㄴ/는*

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‘-은/ㄴ/는*’ is used before a noun to modify the noun. It is attached to an adjective word stem. When the word stem ends in a vowel, ‘ㄴ’ is used. When it ends in a consonant, ‘-은’ is used. When the adjective ends with ‘있다/없다’, then ‘-는’ is used.

● 짧은 치마를 샀어요. (I bought a short skirt.)
● 짠 음식을 먹지 마세요. (Don’t eat a salty food.)

-고

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‘-고’ is like ‘and’ in English, which is used for listing 2 or more actions, states, or facts.

● 저는 밥을 먹었고 동생은 라면을 먹었습니다.
● 그 가수는 예쁘고 날씬해요.

 

-으시/시-

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You should add ‘-으시/시-’ to verbs/adjectives in which the acting person deserves respect, regardless of who you are speaking to. You can add ‘-시-’ to word stems ending in a vowel and ‘-으시-’ to stems ending in a consonant. Once ‘-으시/시-’ is added, the verb/adjective gets conjugated as usual as if the stem ended in ‘-으시/시-’.

● 아버지께서 텔레비전을 보십니다. (My father watches TV.)
● 할머니께서 치마를 입으셨어요. (My grandmother wore a skirt.)