‘-은/ㄴ/는/을/ㄹ’ is placed after a verb. It is used to modify a noun that follows. ‘-는’ is used for the present tense. ‘-은/ㄴ’ is used for the past tense, and ‘-을/ㄹ’ is used for the future tense. When the verb stem ends with a consonant, use ‘-은’, ‘-을’, When the stem ends with a vowel or a consonant ‘ㄹ’, use ‘-ㄴ’, ‘-ㄹ’.
● 내가 본 영화 (The movie that I watched)
● 내가 보는 영화 (The movie that I watch)
● 내가 볼 영화 (The movie that I will watch)
‘-에’ is used with a time noun to indicate the time when the action or situation happens. This particle is not used with nouns like ‘어제, 오늘, 내일, 모레, 그저께’.
● 저는 아침 7시에 일어나요. (I wake up at 7 in the morning.)
● 저는 작년에 한국에 왔어요. (I came to Korea last year.)
1. ‘N하고’ is used when listing more than one item. It is often used in spoken Korean while ‘N과/와’ are mostly used only in written Korean. In this case, ‘N하고‘ can be translated into ‘N and’.
2. ‘N하고’ is used to show the person with whom do a certain action. In this case, ‘N하고‘ can be translated into ‘with N’.
● 빵하고 우유를 먹었어요. (I ate some bread and milk.)
● 저는 엄마하고 살아요. (I live with my mom.)
‘-부터’, which can be translated into ‘from’, is used to show a starting time of an action. And ‘-까지’ which can be translated into ‘to/until’, is used to show the time an action will end or has ended.
● 아홉 시부터 잤어요. (I slept from 9.)
● 1시 반까지 하세요. (Do it until one and a half.)
‘-읍시다/ㅂ시다’ is used formally to express a proposition, suggestion, or an order to a group of at least two speakers in which the speaker is included. This is equivalent to saying “Let’s ~” in English. ‘-지 맙시다’ means “Let’s not ~”.
● 갑시다! (Let’s go!)
● 담배를 피우지 맙시다. (Let’s not smoke.)
‘-을까요?/ㄹ까요?’ is used for suggestion to the listener like ‘Shall we…?’. If the verb stem ends with a vowel or ‘ㄹ’, then use ‘ㄹ까요?’. If the verb stem ends with a consonant except ‘ㄹ’, then use ‘을까요?’.
● 우리 좀 쉴까요? (Shall we take some rest?)
● 뭘 먹을까요? (What shall we eat?)
‘-으세요/세요,-이세요/세요’ is used when we ask somebody to do something, ask a question, and make a statement in a polite way. When the verb stem ends in a consonant, we add ‘-으세요, -이세요’. When the verb stem ends in a vowel, we add ‘-세요’.
‘-은/ㄴ/는*’ is used before a noun to modify the noun. It is attached to an adjective word stem. When the word stem ends in a vowel, ‘ㄴ’ is used. When it ends in a consonant, ‘-은’ is used. When the adjective ends with ‘있다/없다’, then ‘-는’ is used.
● 짧은 치마를 샀어요. (I bought a short skirt.)
● 짠 음식을 먹지 마세요. (Don’t eat a salty food.)
‘-고’ is like ‘and’ in English, which is used for listing 2 or more actions, states, or facts.
● 저는 밥을 먹었고 동생은 라면을 먹었습니다.
● 그 가수는 예쁘고 날씬해요.