카테고리 보관물: Level 1a

-에게/한테

CLICK file_pdf TO DOWNLOAD.

‘-에게/한테’ can all be used to indicate that you are doing (usually giving) something TO somebody. ‘-한테’ is usually used in conversation, ‘-에게’ is usually written (although it is still said in conversation very often) and ‘-께’ is used when the person you are giving something to requires respect (‘-께’ is the honorific form of ‘-에게/한테’).

● 오빠가 저에게 돈을 주었어요. (My older brother gave me some money.)
● 제가 친구에게 전화해요. (I call to my friend.)

-도

CLICK file_pdf TO DOWNLOAD.

‘-도’ is used after a subject and object nouns, to show the listing or subjects and objects or an addition of a subject or object to one mentioned previously. Basically it is the same as “also” and “too” in English.

● 가 : 저는 한국 사람입니다. (I’m Korean.) / 나 : 저도 한국 사람입니다. (I’m Korean, too.)

-었/았/였-, -이었/였-

CLICK file_pdf TO DOWNLOAD.

‘-었/았/였-’ is used for past tense. Note that the ending ‘어요’ can be substituted with a different sentence ending or clause ending. When the word stem ends with ‘하’, it is followed by ‘했’.

 

-겠-

CLICK file_pdf TO DOWNLOAD.

This grammar pattern has several usages. In first-person statements, the ending -겠- expresses intention or will. In this meaning, it is mostly used with formal grammar patterns such as A/V + (스)ㅂ니다 and not used commonly in informal speech.

● 저는 비빔밥을 먹겠습니다. (I will eat Bibimbap.)
● 저는 담배를 피우지 않겠습니다. (I won’t smoke a cigarette.)

 

-고 싶다

CLICK file_pdf TO DOWNLOAD.

This pattern is added to a verb to express the desire to do something like ‘I want to…’. The desire/wish of a third person is indicated by ‘-고 싶어 하다’.

● 저는 집에 가고 싶어요. (I want to go home.)
● 제 친구는 집에 가고 싶어 해요. (My friend wants to go home.)

 

-이/가 아니다

CLICK file_pdf TO DOWNLOAD.

‘-이/가 아니다’ means ‘to be not’. The opposite form is ‘-이다’ (to be). The particle ‘N가’ is used when the noun ends with a vowel, and ‘-이’ is used when the noun ends with a consonant.

● 그것은 제 책이 아닙니다. (It is not my book.)
● 저는 학생이 아닙니다. (I am not a student.)

 

-어요/아요/여요

CLICK file_pdf TO DOWNLOAD.

‘-어요/아요/여요’ is a polite, informal ending. If the word stem’s last vowel is ㅏ or ㅗ, it is followed by 아요. If the last vowel is NOT ㅏ or ㅗ, it is followed by 어요. When the word stem ends with 하, it is followed by 여요 (‘하여요’ often becomes ‘해요’).

 

-에, -에서

CLICK file_pdf TO DOWNLOAD.

The particle ‘-에’ is the locative particle. It indicates the destination or goal when used with directional verbs such as ‘가다(go)’ or ‘오다(come). The particle ‘-에서’ indicates the location of an action.

● 저는 학교에 가요. 학교에서 한국어를 공부해요. (I go to school. I study korean in my school.)
● 친구가 우리 집에 왔어요. 같이 저녁을 먹었어요. (My friend came to my home. I ate dinner with him.)

 

-을/를

CLICK file_pdf TO DOWNLOAD.

‘-을/를’ attached to a noun to show the object of the sentence. When the noun ends in a vowel, use 를. And if the object ends in a constant, use 을.

● 저는 음악을 좋아해요. (I like music.)
● 동생이 자전거를 타요. (My younger brother ride a bicycle.)

-습니다/ㅂ니다, -습니까/ㅂ니까?

CLICK file_pdf TO DOWNLOAD.

‘-습니다/ㅂ니다’ is the formal polite form sentence ending of present tense. ‘-습니다’ is attached to the verb or adjective stem ending in a consonant. ‘-ㅂ니다’ is attached to the stem ending in a vowel. ‘-습니까/ㅂ니까’ is question ending.

● 고맙습니다. (Thank you.)
● 저는 모릅니다. (I don’t know.)
● 집에 갑니까? (Do you go home?)