카테고리 보관물: Level 1a

-으시/시-

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You should add ‘-으시/시-’ to verbs/adjectives in which the acting person deserves respect, regardless of who you are speaking to. You can add ‘-시-’ to word stems ending in a vowel and ‘-으시-’ to stems ending in a consonant. Once ‘-으시/시-’ is added, the verb/adjective gets conjugated as usual as if the stem ended in ‘-으시/시-’.

● 아버지께서 텔레비전을 보십니다. (My father watches TV.)
● 할머니께서 치마를 입으셨어요. (My grandmother wore a skirt.)

-에게

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‘-에게’ can all be used to indicate that you are doing (usually giving) something TO somebody. ‘-한테’ is usually used in conversation, ‘-에게’ is usually written (although it is still said in conversation very often) and ‘-께’ is used when the person you are giving something to requires respect (‘-께’ is the honorific form of ‘-에게/한테’).

● 오빠가 저에게 돈을 주었어요. (My older brother gave me some money.)
● 제가 친구에게 전화해요. (I call to my friend.)

-도

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‘-도’ is used after a subject and object nouns, to show the listing or subjects and objects or an addition of a subject or object to one mentioned previously. Basically it is the same as “also” and “too” in English.

● 가 : 저는 한국 사람입니다. (I’m Korean.) / 나 : 저도 한국 사람입니다. (I’m Korean, too.)

-겠습니다

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‘-겠습니다’ has several usages. In first-person statements, the ending -겠- expresses intention or will. In this meaning, it is mostly used with formal grammar patterns such as A/V + (스)ㅂ니다 and not used commonly in informal speech.

● 저는 비빔밥을 먹겠습니다. (I will eat Bibimbap.)
● 저는 담배를 피우지 않겠습니다. (I won’t smoke a cigarette.)

-고 싶다

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‘-고 싶다’ is added to a verb to express the desire to do something like ‘I want to…’. The desire/wish of a third person is indicated by ‘-고 싶어하다’.

● 저는 집에 가고 싶어요. (I want to go home.)
● 제 친구는 집에 가고 싶어 해요. (My friend wants to go home.)

-이/가 아닙니다

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‘-이/가 아니다’ means ‘to be not’. The opposite form is ‘-이다’ (to be). The particle ‘N가’ is used when the noun ends with a vowel, and ‘-이’ is used when the noun ends with a consonant.

● 그것은 제 책이 아닙니다. (It is not my book.)
● 저는 학생이 아닙니다. (I am not a student.)

-어요/아요/여요

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‘-어요/아요/여요’ is a polite, informal ending. If the word stem’s last vowel is ㅏ or ㅗ, it is followed by 아요. If the last vowel is NOT ㅏ or ㅗ, it is followed by 어요. When the word stem ends with 하, it is followed by 여요 (‘하여요’ often becomes ‘해요’).

-에, -에서

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The particle ‘-에’ is the locative particle. It indicates the destination or goal when used with directional verbs such as ‘가다(go)’ or ‘오다(come). The particle ‘-에서’ indicates the location of an action.

● 저는 학교에 가요. 학교에서 한국어를 공부해요. (I go to school. I study Korean in my school.)
● 친구가 우리 집에 왔어요. 같이 저녁을 먹었어요. (My friend came to my home. I ate dinner with him.)