‘N으로/로’ is placed after a noun and is used to show the direction of an action or destination. It ‘s used with verbs like ’가다(go)‘ or ’오다(come)‘. When the noun ends with a consonant, use ‘-으로’. When the noun ends with a vowel or a consonant ‘ㄹ’, use ‘-로’.
● 앞으로 쭉 가세요. (Go ahead.)
● 이 지하철은 인천으로 갑니까? (Does this train go to Incheon?)
‘-을/ㄹ 것 같다’ is used to show the speaker’s vague guess being made concerning the future. When the word stem ends with a consonant, use ‘-을 것 같다’. When it ends with a vowel or a consonant ‘ㄹ’, use ‘-ㄹ 것 같다’.
● 이번 시험은 어려울 것 같아요. (I think this text will be hard.)
● 그 사람은 안 올 것 같아요. (I think he will not come.)
‘-을/ㄹ 거예요’ is used to show that the speaker is guessing something. The subject is usually in the third person. When the verb ends with a consonant, use ‘-을 거예요’. When the verb ends with a vowel or a consonant ‘ㄹ’, use ‘-ㄹ 거예요’.
● 내일은 비가 올 거예요. (It will rains tomorrow.)
● 벌써 10시니까 아마 집에 있을 거예요. (She will be at home because it’s 10 o’clock.)
‘-을/ㄹ 거예요’ is used to express the speaker’s plan or will. When the verb ends with a consonant, use ‘-을 거예요’. When the verb ends with a vowel or a consonant ‘ㄹ’, use ‘-ㄹ 거예요’.
● 주말에 뭐 할 거예요? (What will you do on weekend?)
● 점심을 친구하고 먹을 거예요. (I’m going to eat lunch with my friend.)
‘-으려고/려고 하다’ indicates the speaker’s intention or will.
● 저는 오늘 도서관에 가려고 합니다. (I’m going to go to the library.)
● 친구한테 돈을 빌리려고 해요. (I’d like to borrow some money from my friend.)
Before the ‘-에’ comes a word indicating time, and that comes a noun that indicates a frequency of an action or unit of calculation. ‘-쯤’ carries the meaning of ‘roughly’ or ‘approximately’.
● 하루에 네 시간쯤 한국어를 공부해요. (I study Korean for about 4 hours a day.)
● 하루에 두 잔쯤 커피를 마셔요. (I drink about 2 cups of coffee a day.)
‘- 중에(서)’ is placed after a noun indicating a certain range of objects or list of a few options to choose from. It carries the meaning of ‘among’ or ‘of (those things)’ or ‘between A and B’.
● 한국 음식 중에서 제가 제일 좋아하는 것은 비빔밥이이에요. (Among Korean foods, bibimbap is my favorite.)
● 지하철하고 택시 중에서 뭐가 더 빨라요? (Which is faster between subway and taxi?)
‘-에게서(한테서)’ is used when somebody is receiving something from somebody. It gets attached to the person from whom you received something from.
● 남자친구한테서 선물을 받았어요. (I received a letter from my girl friend.)
● 저는 부모님에게서 편지가 왔어요. (I got an email from my parents.)
‘-은/ㄴ 후에’ is used to describe what happens after a particular action. ‘후’ means ‘after’ and this grammar means ‘after ~ing’ in general. If the verb ends with a consonant, use ‘-은 후에’. When the verb ends with a vowel or ‘ㄹ’, use ‘-ㄴ 후에’.
● 한국에 온 후에 살이 많이 쪘어요. (I got fat after coming to Korea.)
● 주소를 쓴 후에 저에게 주세요. (Please give it to me after writing address.)