카테고리 보관물: Level 2a

-으로/로

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‘-으로/로’ is placed after a noun and is used to express the selection of an exchanging object. It is used with a verb indicating change like ‘바꾸다’, ‘갈아타다’, ‘갈아입다’.

● 다음 정류장에서 271번 버스로 갈아타세요. (Change to bus number 271 at the next stop.)
● 이 옷을 더 큰 옷으로 바꿔 주세요. (Please change this clothes to a bigger one.)

-으려면/려면

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This grammar pattern is used to show a conditional desire like ‘if you want to do something, you have to …’. It is used with a verb, and if the verb ends in a consonant(except ㄹ), use ‘으려면‘. If the verb ends in a vowel or consonant ㄹ, use ‘려면’.

● 버스를 타려면 교통카드가 있어야 해요. (If you want to get on the bus, you have to bring a transportation pass card.)
● 늦지 않으려면 지금 일어나세요. (Please get up now if you don’t want to be late.)

-어/아/여 가지고

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This grammar pattern is used to show that the performance in the second clause is done by maintaining or using the content in the first clause. So, there has to be an object(‘-을/를’) in the first clause.

● 도서관에서 책을 빌려 가지고 읽었어요. (I borrowed a book from the library, then read it.)
● 숙제를 해 가지고 저한테 주세요. (Do your homework, then give it to me.)

-었다가/았다가/였다가

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This grammar pattern is used to indicate that after completion of an event, the opposite event happened. For instance, when you first went to school and then came back home, you would say “학교에 갔다가 왔어요. It sounds natural when the subjects are the same in the two event, and the meaning of the verbs is opposite.

● 앉았다가 일어났어요. (I sat down, and then stoop up.)
● 창문을 열었다가 너무 추워서 닫았어요. (I opened the window, but it was too cold, so I closed.)

-이나/나

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This grammar particle is used with a noun to express a suggested choice. But the suggestion is not the best option for the speaker. This particle can be used after other particle so that adds a meaning of the alternative option. When the noun ends in a consonant, use ‘이나’. When the noun ends in a vowel, use ‘나’.

● 커피가 없으면 물이나 좀 주세요. (If you don’t have coffee, then please give me water or something.)
● 심심한데 같이 극장에나 갈까요? (I’m bored, so shall we go to a movie theater or somewhere?)

-이나/나

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This grammar particle is used with a noun to express the speaker’s feeling that the quantity is large. When the noun ends in a consonant, use ‘이나’. When the noun ends in a vowel, use ‘나’.

● 어제는 12시간이나 잤어요. (I slept 12 hours last night.)
● 가 : 저는 소주를 5병 정도 마실 수 있어요. (I can drink 5 bottles of soju.) / 나 : 5병이나요? (5 bottles?)

-는지/은지/ㄴ지/인지 알다[모르다]

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This grammar pattern is used to show whether a speaker knows a certain fact or not. When it’s a verb, use ‘-는지’. And when it’s an adjective, use ‘-은지/ㄴ지’. An interrogative word(‘언제’, ‘누구’, ‘무엇’, ‘왜’, ‘어디’…) usually should be used in the sentence.

● 용산에 어떻게 가는지 알아요? (Do you know hot to get the Yongsan?)
● 유리 씨가 왜 안 왔는지 몰라요. (I don’t know why Yuri didn’t come.)

반말 1

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The intimate style is a speech mood which is used to someone who is of an equal or lower status. In terms of the intimate style, there are formal/informal speech levels. And this form could also be used to a person of higher status if one is close to the speaker.

This is how to use the informal-intimate style.

1. Delete ‘요’ from the informal polite style of ‘-어요/아요/여요’. For ‘N이에요/예요’, use ‘N이야/야’. For ‘N이/가 아니에요’, use ‘N이/가 아니야’.
2. Delete ‘-시/으시’.
3. Replace ‘저/저희’ to ‘나/우리’.

-어/아/여 보이다

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This pattern conveys meanings such as likeness, resemblance, or similarity. when attached directly to the stems of an adjective. It can be translated to ‘looks like’ or ‘seems’.

● 이거 정말 맛있어 보여요. (This looks so delicious.)
● 선영 씨는 나이보다 어려 보여요. (Sunyoung looks younger that her age.)

-다가

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This grammar pattern is used to show a new action take place without the action of the first action completed. The subjects of the first and the second clause are the same because a person does the both action.

● 가현 씨는 열심히 공부하다가 잠이 들었어요. (Kahyun studied hard and then fell asleep.)
● 우리는 밥을 먹다가 같이 오락실에 갔어요. (We ate and then went to the arcade together.)