‘-은/ㄴ 줄 알다, -는 줄 알다, -인 줄 알다’ is used to say you expect something is being done, but it isn’t. When For an adjective, it means “I expected SUBJECT is (adjective) [but SUBJECT is not].” When the expectation is of the past, use “-은/ㄴ 줄 알다“. When the expectation is of the future, use “-을/ㄹ 줄 알다“.
● 오늘 비가 오는 줄 알았어요. (그런데 안 왔어요.) : I expected it will rain today. (But I was wrong.)
● 시험이 쉬울 줄 알았어요. (그런데 어려웠어요.): I expected the exam would be easy. (But it was difficult.)
‘-어서/아서/여서 그런지’ is used to indicate an indefinite reason to explain the following situation.
● 비가 와서 그런지 학교에 가기 싫어요. (I don’t want to go to school maybe because it’s rainy.)
● 한국 사람이어서 그런지 매운 음식을 좋아해요. (I like spicy food maybe because I’m Korean.)
‘-은가/ㄴ가 보다, -나 보다, -인가 보다’ is used to indicate the speaker’s presumption or conjecture.
– used with any verb usually with the subject in the third person.
– these pattern is used when you don’t have direct evidence of the conjecture you are talking about.
● 땀을 흘리는 걸 보니 매운가 봐.
● 냄새가 나네. 윗집에서 삼겹살을 먹나 봐.
● 이게 요즘 잘 팔리는 책인가 봐.
‘-을래요/래요’ is used with in the first person tense to expresses the intention or will of the speaker. Also, it can be used to ask what the listener wants to do, often by expressing the speaker’s suggestion. It’s a colloquial form.
● 저는 김밥을 먹을래요. (I will eat Kimbap.)
● 우리 택시 타고 갈래요? (Do you want to take a taxi?)
‘-을지/ㄹ지 모르겠다’ is used to show that the speaker cannot decide to do something or be sure about something. It can be used with a past tense(‘-었을지/았을지/였을지 모르겠다’) and a noun(‘-일지 모르겠다’).
● 길이 막혀서 버스가 제시간에 도착할지 모르겠어요. (I’m not sure whether the bus can arrive on time because the traffic is heavy.)
● 아버지께서 식사를 하셨을지 모르겠군요. (I don’t know whether my father had a meal or not.)
‘-는 동안, – 동안’ is used to indicate a duration of time in which an action or an event occurs.
● 한국에서 사는 동안 친구를 많이 사귀었어요. (I made many friends while I was living in Korea.)
● 기다리시는 동안 이 잡지를 읽으시겠어요? (Would you like to read this magazine while you wait?)
● 방학 동안에 뭘 할 거예요? (What would you do during summer vacation?)
‘-거나’ is used to show your choice. You can use ‘-거나’ to connect two verbs to each other with ‘or’.
● 시간이 있으면 영화를 보거나 책을 읽어요. (When I an free, I watch movies or read books)
● 너무 춥거나 비가 오면 소풍은 취소하겠습니다. (The picnic will be cancelled if it’s too cold or rainy.)
‘-어야겠다/아야겠다/여야겠다’ is used to show the speaker’s strong determination or that a certain condition need to be satisfied. The speaker’s notice of the necessity is usually instantaneous.
● 피곤해서 저는 이제 가야겠어요. (I’m so tired that I should go now.)
● 글자가 잘 안 보여요. 좀 커야겠는데요. (I can’t see the letter. It needs to be big.)
‘-게 되다’ is used to describe how something or someone comes to be in or becomes a certain state or how something happens, often by someone else’s influence, or by the influence of time.
● 한국에는 어떻게 오게 됐어요? (What brings you here to Korea?)
● 미혜가 장학금을 받게 됐어요. (Mihye received scholarship funds.)