This pattern is used to show the interval of time that has elapsed before the following action occurred. It is used with a time noun.
● 우리는 10년 만에 다시 만났어요. (We met again in 10 years.)
● 점심을 10분 만에 다 먹었어요. (I ate lunch in 10 minutes.)
This grammar pattern is used with a verb and shows the content in the second clause is adding up to the first clause. For past reference, ‘-었는/았는/였는 데다가’ is used.
● 비가 오는 데다가 몸도 안 좋아서 방에서 좀 쉴 거예요. (I’ll take some rest in my room because it’s rainy and also I don’t feel well.)
● 숙제가 어려운 데다가 시간도 없어서 숙제를 못 했어요. (I didn’t do my homework because it was difficult and also I didn’t have time.)
This pattern basically means ‘only.’ This pattern requires a negative expression such as ‘없다, 모르다’ or any other negation (‘안, 못’). ‘밖에’ means outside, so saying ‘N 밖에 없다’ means there is nothing besides N, you don’t have anything outside of N, or you only have N.
● 나는 그 사람 이름밖에 몰라. (I know nothing but his name.)
● 손님이 한 명밖에 없어요. (There are only one customer.)
This grammar pattern is used to expresses the existence of a state or a fact, the continuation of an action after it is done. It is often used with a passive verb. For a past tense, ‘-어/아/여 있었다’ is used.
● 책상에 책이 쌓여 있어요. (The books were piled up on the desk.)
● 의자에 아버지께서 앉아 계세요. (My father is sitting on the chair.)
This pattern is used to recall a habitual action or behavior that “used to” happen many times but hasn’t continued or that are ongoing and not yet completed to the present.
● 언니가 자주 입던 옷 (The clothes which my older sister used to wear often.)
● 제가 읽던 책. (The book that I was reading.)
This grammar pattern is used with a verb to show when a content in the first clause is processing, the second clause also keep changing. It can be translated into ‘The more …, the more…’.
● 생각하면 생각할수록 더 모르겠다. (The more I think about it, the more confused I am.)
● 이 책은 읽을수록 더 재미있어요. (The more I read, the more interesting this book becomes.)
This grammar pattern is used with a noun or a verb to indicate a reason. It can only used when the content in the second clause has a positive result, so it can be translated into ‘thanks to …’.
● 친구 덕분에 시험을 잘 봤어요. (I did well at the exam because of my friend.)
● 아버지께서 열심히 일하신 덕분에 저는 대학을 어렵지 않게 다녔어요. (Thanks to my father’s hard work, I went to college without hardship.)