‘-은/ㄴ/는/을/ㄹ’ is placed after a verb. It is used to modify a noun that follows. ‘-는’ is used for the present tense. ‘-은/ㄴ’ is used for the past tense, and ‘-을/ㄹ’ is used for the future tense. When the verb stem ends with a consonant, use ‘-은’, ‘-을’, When the stem ends with a vowel or a consonant ‘ㄹ’, use ‘-ㄴ’, ‘-ㄹ’.
● 내가 본 영화 (The movie that I watched)
● 내가 보는 영화 (The movie that I watch)
● 내가 볼 영화 (The movie that I will watch)
‘-에’ is used with a time noun to indicate the time when the action or situation happens. This particle is not used with nouns like ‘어제, 오늘, 내일, 모레, 그저께’.
● 저는 아침 7시에 일어나요. (I wake up at 7 in the morning.)
● 저는 작년에 한국에 왔어요. (I came to Korea last year.)
1. ‘N하고’ is used when listing more than one item. It is often used in spoken Korean while ‘N과/와’ are mostly used only in written Korean. In this case, ‘N하고‘ can be translated into ‘N and’.
2. ‘N하고’ is used to show the person with whom do a certain action. In this case, ‘N하고‘ can be translated into ‘with N’.
● 빵하고 우유를 먹었어요. (I ate some bread and milk.)
● 저는 엄마하고 살아요. (I live with my mom.)