월별 글 목록: 2015년 2월월

-부터 -까지

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‘-부터’, which can be translated into ‘from’, is used to show a starting time of an action. And ‘-까지’ which can be translated into ‘to/until’, is used to show the time an action will end or has ended.

● 아홉 시부터 잤어요. (I slept from 9.)
● 1시 반까지 하세요. (Do it until one and a half.)

-읍시다/ㅂ시다

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‘-읍시다/ㅂ시다’ is used formally to express a proposition, suggestion, or an order to a group of at least two speakers in which the speaker is included. This is equivalent to saying “Let’s ~” in English. ‘-지 맙시다’ means “Let’s not ~”.

● 갑시다! (Let’s go!)
● 담배를 피우지 맙시다. (Let’s not smoke.)

-을까요?/ㄹ까요?

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‘-을까요?/ㄹ까요?’ is used for suggestion to the listener like ‘Shall we…?’. If the verb stem ends with a vowel or ‘ㄹ’, then use ‘ㄹ까요?’. If the verb stem ends with a consonant except ‘ㄹ’, then use ‘을까요?’.

● 우리 좀 쉴까요? (Shall we take some rest?)
● 뭘 먹을까요? (What shall we eat?)

-은/ㄴ/는*

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‘-은/ㄴ/는*’ is used before a noun to modify the noun. It is attached to an adjective word stem. When the word stem ends in a vowel, ‘ㄴ’ is used. When it ends in a consonant, ‘-은’ is used. When the adjective ends with ‘있다/없다’, then ‘-는’ is used.

● 짧은 치마를 샀어요. (I bought a short skirt.)
● 짠 음식을 먹지 마세요. (Don’t eat a salty food.)

-으시/시-

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You should add ‘-으시/시-’ to verbs/adjectives in which the acting person deserves respect, regardless of who you are speaking to. You can add ‘-시-’ to word stems ending in a vowel and ‘-으시-’ to stems ending in a consonant. Once ‘-으시/시-’ is added, the verb/adjective gets conjugated as usual as if the stem ended in ‘-으시/시-’.

● 아버지께서 텔레비전을 보십니다. (My father watches TV.)
● 할머니께서 치마를 입으셨어요. (My grandmother wore a skirt.)

-에게

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‘-에게’ can all be used to indicate that you are doing (usually giving) something TO somebody. ‘-한테’ is usually used in conversation, ‘-에게’ is usually written (although it is still said in conversation very often) and ‘-께’ is used when the person you are giving something to requires respect (‘-께’ is the honorific form of ‘-에게/한테’).

● 오빠가 저에게 돈을 주었어요. (My older brother gave me some money.)
● 제가 친구에게 전화해요. (I call to my friend.)

-도

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‘-도’ is used after a subject and object nouns, to show the listing or subjects and objects or an addition of a subject or object to one mentioned previously. Basically it is the same as “also” and “too” in English.

● 가 : 저는 한국 사람입니다. (I’m Korean.) / 나 : 저도 한국 사람입니다. (I’m Korean, too.)